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Bone Marrow Transplantation

Bone Marrow Transplantation

Bone Marrow(Stem Cell) Transplantation Center

A medical team consisting of a professor of hematology experienced in stem cell transplantation, a specialist medical doctor, a biologist with expertise in the field of apheresis and bone marrow cryopreservation, and experienced nurses and personnel are responsible for providing the highest standards of care in our bone marrow transplantation unit with 20 inpatient beds.

All rooms are for a single occupancy and equipped with world-standard HEPA filters that filter dust and microbes from the air. The content and quality of the food served to our patients are continuously checked by an experienced dietician, particularly with regard to neutropenic diet (free of microbes).

Our specialist psychologist provides the required psychological support to our patients before and after the transplantation. Also, a pharmaceutist is responsible for the preparation and storage of chemotherapeutic and other pharmaceutical agents.

What is bone marrow and a hematopoietic stem cell?

Bone marrow is an tissue in the interior of bones that contains blood and stem cells. Stem cells transform into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

What is bone marrow transplantation?

Bone marrow transplantation allows the administration of adequate and curative doses of drugs in certain malignant or benign diseases of the blood, lymphatic system or bone marrow. When high doses of drugs are given, patients are unable to produce adequate number of blood cells for prolonged periods of time and they may suffer serious complications such as bleeding and infection that may lead to death. Thus, bone marrow transplantation allows recovery of the patients by shortening this period.

What is the source of stem cells in bone marrow transplantation?

  • Bone Marrow
  • Blood
  • Umbilical cord

There are three types of bone marrow transplantation:

Allogenic transplant:The patient receives stem cells from another person – usually a sibling or a family member, but sometimes an unrelated donor with matching tissue groups.

Autologous transplant: Patient’s own stem cells are first taken and stored, then used for transplant

Syngeneic transplant: A patient receives stem cells donated by his or her healthy identical twin.

How is autologous bone marrow transplant done?

Initially, appropriate treatment to destroy the diseased cells is given. Then, certain drugs to prevent the recurrence of the disease are administered and stem cells are retrieved and frozen. After this stage, a high dose chemotherapy is given to destroy the remaining cells. Finally, the healthy stem cells are transferred back to the patient.

Are there any risks associated with autologous bone marrow transplant?

Generally the procedure is well tolerated by the patients. Since patients’ own stem cells are used, risks are much lower in this patient group. High-dose medications may result in side effects such as vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, or hair loss, which generally disappear following the completion of treatment.

How is allogeneic bone marrow transplant done?

Initially appropriate treatment to destroy the diseased cells is given. Stem cells are retrieved from siblings or non-relative donors with matching tissue characteristics. During this stage, high dose chemotherapy is given to destroy the remaining disease. Then, the cells retrieved are given back to the patient. There are no risks for the donors, and it is similar to blood donation. The required stem cells are quickly replaced by new stem cells, preventing diseases or disorders.